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Sunday, September 13, 2020

Why do we celebrate Father's Day?

In Spain every March 19 we celebrate Father’s Day. However, although we have been celebrating this day for many years, the truth is that very few of us know where the idea comes from, a tradition that has its origin in the United States. It all began on July 5, 1908, in a church in West Virginia, while a mass was celebrated in honor of the fathers and, especially, in memory of the 362 men who had died in an explosion in the coal mines of Fairmont Monohag Company, in December 1907.

That was the first time that a public event was held to honor parents, although it was not until the following year that Sonora Smart Dodd, an American, daughter of a widowed father, thought it would be nice to dedicate a day to honor the effort of his father and all the fathers in the world.

Henry Jackson Smart, Smart Dodd’s father, was an American Civil War veteran who became a widower when his wife passed away while giving birth to their sixth child. The man was left alone and without any support, so he had to take on the difficult task of caring for and educating his six children, on a farm in eastern Washington. Smart Dodd grew up watching his father, a loving and devoted man, make all kinds of sacrifices to support his family.

When Smart Dodd grew up, he wanted to reward her for her effort: While listening to a sermon at the Central Methodist Episcopal Church in honor of Mother’s Day, Smart Dodd thought it was important to recognize the work of parents as well. So a few days later she reached out to the Spokane Ministerial Alliance and suggested her father’s birthday, June 5, as the date to honor fathers. The Spokane Ministerial Alliance accepted the idea but chose the third Sunday in June to celebrate the tribute. Thus, on June 19, 1910, the first Father’s Day was celebrated in Spokane, Washington.

Years later the idea spread across the nation and in 1916, President Woodrow Wilson sent a message to Spokane for Father’s Day. However, the celebration was not official until 1966, when President Lyndon B. Johnson signed a presidential proclamation declaring the third Sunday in June as Father’s Day. Soon after, in 1972, President Nixon established a national proclamation of Father’s Day to be celebrated on the third Sunday of June each year.

Why is Father’s Day celebrated in Spain?

The idea of celebrating Father’s Day came to Spain after it spread to the United States in 1948. It was an initiative of a teacher from the Dehesa de la Villa, Manuela Vicente Ferrero, who decided to celebrate a day of festivities at her school to honor the parents of their students.

It all started because some parents got angry because they were not honored as they used to do with mothers, so they approached Manuela and commented on her opinion. The teacher agreed with them and decided to do something about it. He organized a mass, a children’s festival and helped his students prepare some crafts to give to their parents . The chosen date was March 19, the day of San José, since Manuela considered San José a model of a father, sacrificed, humble and hard-working.

Years later, the initiative spread through the media, such as El Correo de Zamora and El Magisterio Español. In her publications, the teacher made reference to the importance of the father in the education of children and how children should be grateful for their affection, love and tenderness.

However, it was not until 1951 that the celebration of Father’s Day reached the entire country through an interview with him on the radio program, Ultima hora de Actualidad, in which he explained the history of this day to listeners. Little by little, different institutions were added, years later the celebration of Father’s Day, on March 19, became official.

 

Useful External Links

Father’s Day on Wikipedia

Why we celebrate Father’s Day: everything you need to know

When and Why do we Celebrate Father’s Day?

Friday, September 11, 2020

How to get pregnant fast and easy

Are you considering getting pregnant quickly and easily, and want to try everything so that it does not take many months or have to undergo complicated treatments? You should know that there are no magic formulas to get pregnant in a short time and without any problem, but, if you are a couple predisposed to conceiving without many obstacles, there are different ways to try.

How to get pregnant quickly?

 

Ogino’s method can be very helpful. This traditional method is better known to most people as an ineffective contraceptive, but the truth is that it is a great way for a woman to know when in her menstrual cycle she is and, therefore, on which days of the month is more fertile. 

Living a healthy lifestyle can help. Many women who wonder how to get pregnant quickly and easily have unhealthy lifestyle habits. Poor diet, the consumption of alcohol or tobacco, or the current fast pace of life are just some of the practices that should be avoided when looking for a baby. Stress and general malaise drastically reduce the chances of getting pregnant.

It is important to eat a balanced diet. It is very common for a woman with too low weight to have difficulties when conceiving. Although being overweight is not good either. We must try to maintain a weight in accordance with our physical characteristics. Otherwise, when a woman is not physically well, her body instinctively shields itself from the possibility of engendering a life that it is not in optimal condition to support.

Avoid stressful situations. If you already have another child and you are having a hard time getting pregnant with the second one, ask yourself if you are going through a particularly stressful situation, such as an upset in the family, a job change or a difficult situation related to your child, such as nocturnal enuresis, continuous tantrums, some disease.

Try to have sex often so that you don’t miss any chance of getting pregnant. After finishing the act, it is advisable to lie down for a while and not immediately go out to play sports, shower or go to the bathroom.

Tricks to get pregnant

 

How to get pregnant? What is the best method to conceive? If you are looking for a baby and you can’t stop dreaming about pregnancy, we offer you the help you need. However, it must be borne in mind that there are many myths related to conception, shared by many aspiring moms, many of them related to hygienic and nutritional practices. What is true in them?

First, clear up the myths

1. The ideal sexual position to get pregnant is the classic one, that of the “missionary”.

According to some experts, to conceive, there are some more beneficial sexual positions than others. However, it is true that nature has provided sperm with a locomotor system, which allows its ascent through the uterine cavity at an average speed of 2-3 millimeters per minute, regardless of the force of gravity. It is also natural that much of the semen is expelled after sexual intercourse. It is enough to think that, of around 100-150 million sperm that are deposited inside the vagina, only a hundred manage to reach the oocyte, if the ovulation period is propitious.

2. Before having sexual intercourse, you must wash with a solution of water and bicarbonate, which alkalizes the environment of the vagina, which favors the survival of the sperm.

The vaginal environment is physiologically acidic and this characteristic has a specific protective function, because it inhibits the proliferation of pathogenic organisms. It would be very rare if, after millions of years of evolution and natural selection, a process essential for the survival of our species, such as reproduction, requires non-physiological conditions. Therefore, it is not true that an alkaline environment favors the survival of sperm. Washing with water and bicarbonate, in addition to being useless to promote conception , is a dangerous practice, because it reduces the body’s defenses against potentially harmful genital infections for female fertility.

3. It is better to avoid having intercourse every day and to separate them one or two days, to allow time for the sperm to mature.

It is true that the concentration of sperm in seminal fluid decreases if sexual intercourse is very frequent, if it occurs every day or several times a day. However, setting certain cadences for sexual intercourse or limiting them to certain fertile days can be counterproductive. The couple may become distressed and this could compromise the desired conception.

4. Grapefruit juice, green tea, sunflower seeds, and pumpkin seeds are some foods that promote female fertility.

There is no food that promotes conception. It is true that obesity and extreme thinness can hinder conception, so it is advisable for the aspiring mother to adopt a varied and balanced diet , avoiding excessive consumption of meat and saturated fats, as well as tobacco and abuse alcohol, because a healthy body is more likely to conceive and successfully carry a pregnancy to term.

5. Maca root ( Lepidium meyenii ), a plant of South American origin, has the power to regulate the ovulation cycle and to stimulate man’s sperm. If both members of the couple take it, it can promote conception.

There are many plants to which, throughout human history, the power to inhibit or promote conception has been attributed. They all have one common characteristic: their alleged power has never been proven by clinical studies. It is also the case of this South American root. Therefore, before taking any product of this type, you should consult with the gynecologist.

Tips for getting pregnant

 

From the moment you start looking for pregnancy, you must take into account a series of habits that you can include in your day to day in order to lead a healthy lifestyle that facilitates conception. These guidelines to implement in daily life do not affect only you, but also your partner , since it is important that both of you lead a balanced life to achieve conception more easily.

Contraceptives and nutrition, two basic aspects

Stopping contraceptives and analyzing the type of diet that you and your partner follow are the first two aspects to take into account when looking for a baby.

– Discontinue the use of contraceptives. It is the first step to take to achieve pregnancy. However, not all contraceptives are the same. Some methods, such as the male or female condom and the diaphragm, allow you to start trying to get pregnant right out of the box. On the other hand, with other methods, such as the pill or contraceptive injections, you may need more time because when you stop, menstrual cycles usually take longer to regularize and return to normal. In these cases, it is advisable to stop contraception a couple of months before seeking pregnancy.

– Follow a balanced and healthy diet. Nutrition is a fundamental aspect of every future mother, since if you follow a healthy diet before becoming pregnant, the body will have all the necessary nutrients to help the baby’s development from the day of conception onwards.

A healthy diet involves eating regularly and balanced, avoiding processed foods, and eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. It is also important to eat proteins, carbohydrates, milk and dairy products and fats that are considered good (from plant sources and fish such as salmon).

Most couples trying to conceive focus exclusively on increasing the frequency of sexual intercourse, especially when the woman is in her fertile days. However, many of these couples overlook that health is also critical to achieving pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that maintaining inappropriate lifestyle habits, both in the case of men and women, decreases fertility.

Therefore, it is important that if you are looking for a baby:

  • Regulate your body weight
  • Give up cigarettes and alcohol
  • Get enough sleep
  • Bet on a healthy and balanced diet, in which vegetables and fruits are the protagonists
  • Avoid artificial sweeteners, trans fats, and simple carbohydrates
  • Regulate stress levels
  • Do moderate intensity physical activity
  • Limit milk intake as it has been found to be detrimental to sperm health
  • Avoid lubricants because they hinder the mobility of sperm

 

Useful External Links

How to get pregnant fast: 11 tips to increase your chances

What tips are there to get pregnant?

10 Tricks To Get Pregnant

Homemade tricks to get pregnant

 

If you know other tips and want to share how to get pregnant quickly and easily with other women who are looking for the baby, do not hesitate to leave a comment below. Many women will thank you!

 

Mother's Day: history and dates of celebration in the world

Mother’s day is a very special date. The Mother’s Day should be one of the dates that people expect to entertain and honor being who brought to the world. In our country, this important holiday is celebrated on every second Sunday in May, as well as in other parts of the world such as the United States ( USA – USA ), Germany, Venezuela, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Italy and Japan, among others.

In other nations such as Spain, to cite one example, Mother’s Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in May, while in Argentina and Belarus, on the third Sunday in October. How curious, right?

But since when is this special date celebrated ? Although in modern times it is often thought that Mother’s Day is nothing more than a marketing strategy that companies use to sell their products or offer services, the origins of the holiday go back to ancient Greece, where honors were paid to Rhea, the mother of the gods Poseidon, Hades and Zeus.

In Christian countries this celebration served to venerate the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. On December 8, the date that Catholics celebrate the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, Mother’s Day is celebrated in Panama .

As far as the United States is concerned, in 1873, women from 18 cities held a special meeting for Mother’s Day. On May 12, 1907, the activist Ana Jarvis ) wanted to commemorate the death of her mother and set a date to remember not only hers but all the mothers of the country.

As his campaign spread throughout the country, President Woodrow Wilson, in 1914, declared that Mother’s Day be celebrated every second Sunday in May, a tradition adopted by other countries that remains to this day as one of the most important dates of the annual calendar.

In the case of Mexico , Mother’s Day is celebrated annually every May 10 .

What days is Mother’s Day celebrated in the countries of the world?

 

  • First Sunday in May: Spain, Lithuania, Portugal, South Africa, Romania, Hungary.
  • Second Sunday in May: Peru, Germany, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, China, Canada, Colombia (except Cúcuta), Croatia, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, United States, Estonia, Philippines, Finland, Greece, Holland, Honduras, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Puerto Rico, Ukraine, Uruguay, Switzerland, Czech Republic, New Zealand and Venezuela.
  • May 8: South Korea (Father’s Day)
  • May 10: Mexico , El Salvador, United Arab Emirates, India, Guatemala, Qatar, Singapore, Oman, Malaysia.
  • May 14: Samoa
  • May 15: Paraguay
  • May 26: Poland
  • May 27: Bolivia
  • May 30: Nicaragua
  • Last Sunday in May: France, Sweden, Dominican Republic, Cúcuta (Colombian city)
  • Third Sunday in October: Argentina, Belarus
  • December 8: Panama (Immaculate Conception Day)

How is Mother’s Day celebrated in your country ? Do not forget to leave us your comments in this note. Also, be sure to share it with all your friends and contacts on social networks so that they are aware of this data.

 

Wednesday, September 9, 2020

15 ways to make a fancy Tie knot in your tie

Most men wear only one tie knot our entire lives. The same is because we are creatures of habit, maybe we are boring, or we just don’t like to experiment and try new things.

Most of us may tie the same tie knot because we don’t have an easy guide to show us how to experiment with other ways to tie it.

Here are 15 elegant knots and how to do them step by step so that you are encouraged to try them, either for work or even with more casual clothes.

The Four in Hand Tie Knot

The Cuatro en Mano is named after a 19th century Gentlemen’s Club of the same name and is clearly the champion among tie knots. Its popularity is due to its simplicity and versatility . It’s easy to tie, slim, slightly asymmetrical, and self-releasing. If you only learn one knot, let it be Four in Hand.

The Four in Hand Tie Knot
The Four in Hand Tie Knot

 

Middle Windsor Tie Knot

The Half Windsor knot is an extremely versatile knot. Contrary to its name, the Half Windsor knot is actually closer to three-quarters the size of the Windsor knot. It is medium in size, almost symmetrical and, when properly tied, produces a noticeable deep dimple. Best worn with medium to narrow thickness ties.

Middle Windsor Tie Knot
Middle Windsor Tie Knot

 

Windsor Tie Knot

The Duke of Windsor never specifically used the Windsor knot . In fact, the Duke achieved his innovative look by tying a Four in Hand with wide and thick ties specially made for him. This knot arose from the tie wearers themselves trying to imitate the style of the Duke’s knot. There are several derivatives of Windsor that use the same name. The Windsor offers a solid and symmetrical triangle knot that works best with a wide neck.

Windsor Tie Knot
Windsor Tie Knot

 

Simple / Oriental Tie Knot

The Simple knot contains as few steps as possible and is very easy to learn. Despite its simplicity, this knot is rarely used in the West, but it remains popular in China . This may be because it is more difficult to untie. It is a compact knot with an asymmetry that causes it to lean towards the active end. This knot works well with thick ties or for tall men who need a bit more length.

Simple / Oriental Tie Knot
Simple / Oriental Tie Knot

 

Kelvin Tie Knot

The Kelvin tie knot is named after Lord Kelvin (William Thomson, 1824-1907), a mathematical physicist who contributed to the theory of knots in relation to atomic structure. The Kelvin is an extension of the Simple knot . Like this one, the Kelvin starts with the tie found upside down, resulting in an inverted tail. This knot produces a neat and agile knot similar in size to Hand Fours but slightly larger and more angular.

Kelvin Tie Knot
Kelvin Tie Knot

 

Pratt Tie Knot

Jerry Pratt worked for the US Chamber of Commerce For 30 years, Mr. Pratt had tied his tie in distinctive style before host Don Shelby “discovered” it and advertised it on local television in 1989. When articles about the ” Shelby Knot ” (as it was called then) appeared in the New York Times and the New York Daily Telegraph , the popularity of the knot skyrocketed. The Pratt knot is versatile , elegant and medium in size , between the Four in Hand Knot and the Middle Windsor Knot.

Pratt Tie Knot
Pratt Tie Knot

 

Balthus Tie Knot

This knot was invented around 1930 by Balthus (Baltasar Klossowski), a controversial Polish-French modern artist. The Balthus knot is large in size (significantly larger than the Windsor ). When executed correctly, the resulting knot is wide and tapered in shape . Note that due to the large number of times the wide end is wrapped around the small end, the finished tie will be very short.

Balthus Tie Knot
Balthus Tie Knot

 

Victory Tie Knot

This knot is named after Queen Victoria of England (although it is highly unlikely that she used it herself). There is no apparent correlation between the style of the knot and the queen herself.

But the Victoria knot is (technically) a bulkier and more complex version of the Four in Hand . More exactly for a single extra pass up front. Some say that the name ” Victoria ” perhaps has something to do with the fact that it is a bit more sophisticated than the knot on which it is based.

Victory Tie Knot
Victory Tie Knot

 

Nicky Tie Knot

The name ” Nicky ” supposedly comes from Nikita Khrushchev’s visit to Milan , where “inside-out” knots such as Nicky and Pratt knots are commonly used in shop windows and tailors. The Nicky has a particularly practical feature: to untie it, simply lift the narrow end to undo the knot.

Nicky Tie Knot
Nicky Tie Knot

 

St. Andrew Tie Knot

It’s basically a medium- sized knot that suits most types of faces and looks. Although the design is asymmetrical , it really does appear almost symmetrical unless viewed up close.

It is classified as a narrow tie knot, but is slightly larger than those in the same category. That makes it a good option for men with rounder faces or wider shoulders, helping to provide the features. But the biggest advantage it has is that it is a very practical knot and also with some volume . You won’t waste a lot of time learning it.

St. Andrew Tie Knot
St. Andrew Tie Knot

Hanover Tie Knot

The Hanover knot is large and symmetrical . It takes its name supposedly from the House of Hannover , the royal dynasty that ruled the UK from 1714 to 1901. But there is not much evidence that any monarch during that period actually used it. And since that period was mostly under the reign of Queen Victoria, this modern style of tie might not have been so popular back then. A properly made Hanover knot forms an equilateral triangle with a very distinctive symmetry .

Hanover Tie Knot
Hanover Tie Knot

 

Coffee Tie Knot

As the name suggests, it was one of the favorite styles of coffee shoppers in the early part of the 20th century . It is an elegant and unnecessarily complicated knot , designed to draw attention to the skill of knotting (and, in general, to the fine silk tie). The final shape has a distinct pair of downward diagonals that frame the center of the triangular knot . It is not entirely symmetrical, as one “leg” of the triangle overlaps the other.

Coffee Tie Knot
Coffee Tie Knot

 

Eldredge Tie Knot

The Eldredge is an unorthodox , complex and eye-catching tie knot that involves 15 separate steps. It was invented by Jeffrey Eldredge in 2007 and rose to internet fame in 2008. Unlike the vast majority of tie knots, this knot is formed using the small end as the active end. When finished, the small remaining end is hidden behind the collar of the shirt. The knot is large (larger than the Windsor ) and creates a tapered fishtail braid effect.

Eldredge Tie Knot
Eldredge Tie Knot

 

Trinity Tie Knot

The Trinity knot , like the Eldredge knot , is a relatively recent innovation. The finished knot shares similarity with the Celtic Triquetra . Tied using the small end as the active end, this knot is tied loosely and pulled tight at the end. The Trinity produces a rounded shape that is slightly asymmetrical , somewhat larger than the Windsor knot, and visually striking.

Trinity Tie Knot
Trinity Tie Knot

 

Bow tie Tie Knot

The bow tie is a descendant of the knotted tie. It was born out of the need to wear ties that are easier to wear and last all day intact. At the end of the 19th century , the butterfly and bat bow tie were commonly used. Black bow ties with dinner jacket and white bow ties with tails were used for maximum etiquette. Today, bow ties are mostly worn on formal occasions ; however, in the last decade, everyday bow ties have grown in popularity. A bow tie is perfect for any man who likes to stand out .

Bow tie Tie Knot
Bow tie Tie Knot

 

5 tips to lose abdominal fat

To lose fat in the belly, it is recommended to have a healthy diet and do physical activity on a regular basis, so that it is possible to burn accumulated fat, improve the cardiovascular system and increase metabolism, making the body spend more energy during the day and at night, which favors the loss of body fat, including fat located in the abdominal region.

In addition, it is interesting to invest in natural thermogens, such as green tea, for example, as they speed up metabolism and have a diuretic effect, reducing fluid accumulation and eliminating abdominal fat more quickly.

The 5 tips to eliminate belly fat are:

 

1. Drink green tea

 

In addition to drinking water, teas should be taken because they help to eliminate toxins and excess liquid accumulated in the body, and some teas help to speed up the metabolism and favor the fat burning process, which contributes to weight loss .

A great example is green tea, which has catechins that help to dry the belly, or a diuretic tea such as the mixture of dandelion with leather hat and sarsaparilla, which helps to eliminate excess body fluids, deflating the belly.

 

2. Exercise every day

 

Exercising daily is important not only to lose abdominal fat, but also to make you more willing to perform day-to-day tasks, prevent the occurrence of diseases and improve the quality of life.

One of the exercise options to burn abdominal fat is running, because during this exercise the body uses accumulated fat as an energy source. In addition to running, it is important to do some exercise such as local gymnastics or weight training to ensure the growth of muscles, which naturally increase metabolism and favor the elimination of accumulated fat.

In addition, performing exercises that work the abdominal region, such as plank and abdominal, can also favor the strengthening of the region, helping to increase muscle mass and loss of fat in the belly, in addition to promoting its definition.

 

3. Eat healthy

 

Food is important to help speed up the metabolism and, thus, favor the burning of fat, including the accumulated in the belly. Thus, it is recommended to increase the consumption of vegetables, cereals, and fiber in all meals. In addition, whenever possible, very sweet and fatty and frozen foods ready to be consumed should be avoided.

The diet to lose the belly must be based on natural foods like fruits, vegetables and lean proteins like white meats or tofu. To end the fat in your belly, make regular meals during the day, avoiding moments when the volume of the meal is very large, thus avoiding the excessive production of insulin and the increase in fat mass.

 

4. Massage the belly with fat-reducing cream

 

Massages located on the belly daily help to activate blood circulation and help shape the silhouette, being a good way to complement proper nutrition and exercise. It is important to pay attention to the ingredients of the reducing creams, because according to the composition it is possible to have better effects on the blood circulation activation and fat mobilization process.

It is in the fat that the toxins are concentrated, so it is very important to ensure good hydration and thus facilitate the elimination of them by the intestine and urine, because when there is a great burning of localized fat, there is also a great release of toxins by the body, which must be eliminated so as not to cause swelling and lead to premature aging.

 

5. Eat high fiber foods

 

It is important to have a diet rich in fiber, preferably present in fruits and vegetables, so that the intestine is functioning regularly. This way it is possible to avoid constipation and the use of laxatives that can irritate the intestine and lead to abdominal bloating and increased gas production, for example.

To help regulate the intestine, invest in seeds like sesame, flaxseed and chia, adding 1 tablespoon to each meal. However, to ensure the elimination of feces, drink 2 liters of water, juice and unsweetened tea, every day.

 

Saturday, September 5, 2020

What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is a discipline that studies the Possibilities of using the the living Organisms, Their Systems or Their metabolic products to the solve Technological Problems view, as with the a well as with the the Possibility of Creating Company the living Organisms with the Necessary properties by Means of Genetic engineering .

Biotechnology is often the Called the use of Genetic engineering in the the XX-th – the XXI Centuries , But the TERM Also the Refers to a Wider complex of the Processes for Modifying Biological Organisms to the meet human Needs, starting with the modification of plants and animals through artificial selection and hybridization . It has been shown that it will be possible to improve the quality of food organisms.

Until 1971, the term “biotechnology” was used for the food industry and agriculture. Since 1970, scientists have used the term as applied to laboratory methods, such as the use of recombinant DNA and cell cultures grown in vitro .

Biotechnology is based on genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology.

History of biotechnology

Brewing was one of the first applications of biotechnology.

For the first time the term “biotechnology” was applied by the Hungarian engineer Carl Ereki in 1917 .

The use in industrial production of microorganisms or their Enzymes that provide the technological process has been known since ancient times, but systematic scientific research has significantly expanded the arsenal of methods and means of biotechnology.

Thus, in 1814, St. Petersburg academician K.S. Kirchhoff ( biography ) discovered the phenomenon of biological catalysis and tried biocatalytically to obtain sugar from available domestic raw materials (until the middle of the 19th century, sugar was obtained only from sugarcane ). In 1891 in the USA, the Japanese biochemist Dz. Takamine received the first patent on the use of enzyme preparations for industrial purposes: the scientist suggested using diastase for saccharification of plant waste.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the fermentation and microbiological industry was actively developing. During these years, the first attempts were made to establish the production of antibiotics, food concentrates derived from yeast, to control the fermentation of products of plant and animal origin.

The first antibiotic, penicillin , was able to be isolated and cleaned to an acceptable level in 1940 , which gave new challenges: finding and setting up industrial production of drugs produced by microorganisms, working to reduce the cost and increase the biosafety level of new drugs.

Types of biotechnology

 

Bioengineering

Bioengineering (or biomedical engineering) is a discipline aimed at deepening knowledge in the field of engineering, biology and medicine and promoting human health through interdisciplinary research that combines engineering approaches with the achievements of biomedical science and clinical practice. Bioengineering / biomedical engineering is the application of technical approaches to solve medical problems in order to improve health protection. This engineering discipline is aimed at using knowledge and experience to find and solve problems of biology and medicine. Bioengineers work for the benefit of mankind, deal with living systems and apply advanced technologies to solve medical problems. Specialists in biomedical engineering can participate in the creation of instruments and equipment in the development of new procedures based on interdisciplinary knowledge, in research aimed at obtaining new information to solve new problems. Among the important achievements of bioengineering we can mention the development of artificial joints, magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac pacemakers, arthroscopy, angioplasty, skin bioengineering prostheses, kidney dialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass. Also one of the main areas of bioengineering research is the use of computer modeling techniques to create proteins with new properties, as well as to simulate the interaction of various compounds with cellular receptors in order to develop new pharmaceutical products (“drug design”). Among the important achievements of bioengineering we can mention the development of artificial joints, magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac pacemakers, arthroscopy, angioplasty, skin bioengineering prostheses, kidney dialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass. Also one of the main areas of bioengineering research is the use of computer modeling techniques to create proteins with new properties, as well as to simulate the interaction of various compounds with cellular receptors in order to develop new pharmaceutical products (“drug design”). Among the important achievements of bioengineering we can mention the development of artificial joints, magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac pacemakers, arthroscopy, angioplasty, skin bioengineering prostheses, kidney dialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass. Also one of the main areas of bioengineering research is the use of computer modeling techniques to create proteins with new properties, as well as to simulate the interaction of various compounds with cellular receptors in order to develop new pharmaceutical products (“drug design”).

Biomedicine

Section of medicine that studies the theoretical positions with the body of man , its structure and function in normal and pathological , pathological conditions, methods of diagnosis , correction and treatment . Biomedicine includes accumulated knowledge and research, to a greater or lesser extent, general medicine , veterinary medicine , dentistry and the basic biological sciences, such as chemistry , biological chemistry , biology , histology , genetics , embryology ,anatomy , physiology , pathology , biomedical engineering , zoology , botany and microbiology .

Nanomedicine

Tracking, correcting, designing and controlling human biological systems at the molecular level using nanodevices and nanostructures. The world has already created a number of technologies for the nanomedical industry. These include targeted delivery of drugs to diseased cells, laboratories on a chip, new bactericides.

Biopharmacology

A pharmacology section that studies the physiological effects produced by substances of biological and biotechnological origin. In fact, biopharmacology is the fruit of the convergence of two traditional sciences – biotechnology , namely, its branch, which is called the “red”, medical biotechnology, and pharmacology , previously interested only in low molecular weight chemicals, as a result of mutual interest.

Objects of biopharmacological research – the study of biopharmaceuticals , planning for their production, organization of production. Biopharmacological remedies and means for the prevention of diseases are obtained using living biological systems, tissues of organisms and their derivatives, using biotechnology , that is, medicinal substances of biological and biotechnological origin.

Bioinformatics

A set of methods and approaches, including:

mathematical methods of computer analysis in comparative genomics (genomic bioinformatics);
development of algorithms and programs for predicting the spatial structure of proteins ( structural bioinformatics );
research strategies, relevant computational methodologies, as well as the overall management of the information complexity of biological systems.

Bioinformatics uses methods of applied mathematics , statistics and computer science . Bioinformatics is used in biochemistry , biophysics , ecology and other fields.

Sequence alignment

A bioinformatics method based on placing two or more sequences of DNA , RNA or protein monomers under each other in such a way that it is easy to see similar areas in these sequences. The similarity of the primary structures of the two molecules may reflect their functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships. Sequence alignment algorithms are also used in NLP .

Bionics

Applied science is about the application in technical devices and systems of principles of organization, properties, functions and structures of living nature, that is, forms of living in nature and their industrial analogues. Simply put, bionics is a combination of biology and technology. Bionics considers biology and technology from a completely new angle, explaining which common features and differences exist in nature and technology.

There are:

biological bionics, which studies the processes occurring in biological systems;
theoretical bionics, which builds mathematical models of these processes;
technical bionics, applying models of theoretical bionics to solve engineering problems.
Bionics is closely related to biology , physics , chemistry , cybernetics and engineering sciences: electronics , navigation , communications , maritime affairs and others.

Bioremediation

A set of methods for purifying water, soils and the atmosphere using the metabolic potential of biological objects – plants , fungi , insects , worms and other organisms .

Artificial selection

Selective approval for reproduction of animals, plants or other organisms with the aim of breeding new varieties and breeds. The predecessor and the main method of modern breeding . The result of artificial selection is a variety of plant varieties and animal breeds.

Cloning

The appearance of a natural way or obtaining several genetically identical organisms by asexual (including vegetative ) reproduction. The term “cloning” in the same sense is often used in relation to cells of multicellular organisms. Cloning is also called obtaining several identical copies of hereditary molecules (molecular cloning). Finally, cloning is also often referred to as biotechnological methods used to artificially obtain clones of organisms, cells or molecules. A group of genetically identical organisms or cells is a clone.

 

Human cloning 

The predicted methodology, consisting in the creation of an embryo and the subsequent cultivation from the embryo of people having the genotype of one or another individual, now existing or previously existing. While the technology of human cloning is not worked out. Currently, not a single case of human cloning has been recorded. And here rises a series of both theoretical and technical issues. However, today there are methods that allow us to say with a high degree of confidence that the main issue is technology. Fears cause such moments as a large percentage of failures during cloning and the associated possibility of the appearance of defective people. As well as issues of paternity, maternity, inheritance, marriage and many others. From the point of view of the main world religions ( Christianity ,Islam , Judaism ) human cloning is either a problematic act, or an act that goes beyond dogma and requires that theologians have a clear substantiation of one or another position of religious hierarchs . In some states, the use of these technologies in relation to a person is officially prohibited – France , Germany , Japan . These prohibitions, however, do not mean the intention of the legislators of these states to refrain from using human cloning in the future, after a detailed study of the molecular mechanisms of interaction of the cytoplasm. the oocyte – the recipient and the nucleus of the somatic cell – donor , as well as the improvement of the cloning technique itself .

Educational biotechnology

Educational biotechnology is used for the dissemination of biotechnology and training in this area. It develops interdisciplinary materials and educational strategies related to biotechnology (for example, production of recombinant protein) accessible to the whole society, including people with special needs, such as hearing and / or visual impairment.

Hybridization

The process of formation or production of hybrids , which is based on the integration of the genetic material of different cells in one cell. It can be carried out within one species (intraspecific hybridization) and between different systematic groups (distant hybridization, at which different genomes merge ). For the first generation hybrids are often characterized by heterosis , expressed in a better adaptability, higher fertility and the viability of the organisms. With distant hybridization, hybrids are often sterile .

Genetic Engineering

Substrates for the production of unicellular protein for different classes of microorganisms
Despite the fact that the first successful experiments on the transformation of exogenous DNA cells were performed as early as the 1940s by Avery , McLeod and McCarthy , the first commercial preparation of human recombinant insulin was obtained in early 1980 or 1982. The introduction of bacterial cells alien to the genome is carried out using the so-called. vector DNAs , such as plasmids present in bacterial cells, as well as bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements can be used as vectors for transferring exogenous DNA into a recipient cell.

You can get a new gene:

Cutting it from the host’s genomic DNA using a restricting endonuclease that catalyzes the rupture of phosphodiester bonds between certain nitrogenous bases in DNA at sites with a specific nucleotide sequence;

Chemical enzymatic synthesis;

Synthesis of cDNA based on isolated matrix RNA using revertase and DNA polymerase enzymes , isolating a gene that does not contain insignificant sequences and is able to be expressed, provided that a suitable promoter sequence is selected in prokaryotic systems without subsequent modifications, which is most often necessary when transforming prokaryotic systems eukaryotic genes containing introns and exons .

After that, the vector DNA molecule is treated with a restriction enzyme in order to form a double-stranded break and the gene is inserted into the vector using a DNA ligase enzyme , and then the recipient cells, such as E. coli cells, are transformed with such recombinant molecules . When transformed using plasmid DNA as a vector, for example, it is necessary for the cells to be competent for the penetration of exogenous DNA into the cell, for which electroporation of the recipient cells is used, for example. After successful penetration into the cell, exogenous DNA begins to replicate and be expressed in the cell.

Transgenic plants

Transgenic plants are those plants that “transplanted” the genes of other organisms.

A potato that is resistant to the Colorado potato beetle was created by introducing a gene isolated from the genome of the soil of the Thuringian bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis , which produces the Cry protein , which is protoxin, in the intestines of insects, this protein dissolves and is activated to a true toxin, which has a destructive effect on larvae and imago of insects in humans and other warm-blooded animals, such a transformation of protoxin is impossible and, accordingly, this protein is non-toxic and safe for humans. Spraying spores of Bacillus thuringiensisused to protect plants and to obtain the first transgenic plant, but with low efficiency, the production of endotoxin inside the plant tissues significantly increased the effectiveness of protection, as well as increased economic efficiency due to the fact that the plant itself began to produce a protective protein. By transforming a potato plant with Agrobacterium tumefaciens , plants were obtained that synthesize this protein in the leaf mesophyll and other plant tissues and, accordingly, are not affected by the Colorado potato beetle. This approach is also used to create other agricultural plants that are resistant to various types of insects.

Transgenic animals

Pigs are most often used as transgenic animals . For example, there are pigs with human genes – they were bred as donors of human organs.

Japanese gene engineers introduced into the pig genome a spinach gene that produces the enzyme FAD2, which is capable of converting saturated fatty acids to linoleic , an unsaturated fatty acid. Modified pigs have 1/5 more unsaturated fatty acids than normal ones.

Green glowing pigs are transgenic pigs bred by a group of researchers from the National University of Taiwan by introducing a green fluorescent protein gene into the embryo’s DNA , borrowed from the fluorescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria . Then the embryo was implanted in the female pig. Piglets glow green in the dark and have a greenish tint to the skin and eyes in daylight. The main purpose of breeding such pigs, according to the researchers, is the possibility of visual observation of the development of tissues during stem cell transplantation.

Moral aspect

Many modern religious figures and some scientists warn the scientific community against being overly fascinated by such biotechnologies (in particular, biomedical technologies) such as genetic engineering , cloning , and various methods of artificial reproduction (such as IVF ).

A man in the face of the newest biomedical technologies , an article by V. N. Filyanova , Senior Researcher at RISI :

The problem of biotechnology is only a part of the problem of scientific technology, which is rooted in the orientation of European man towards the transformation of the world, the conquest of nature, which began in the era of the New Age. Biotechnologies, which are rapidly developing in recent decades, at first glance bring people closer to the realization of their long-held dream of overcoming diseases, eliminating physical problems, and achieving earthly immortality through human experience. But on the other hand, they give rise to completely new and unexpected problems that are not limited only to the consequences of the long-term use of genetically modified products, the deterioration of the human gene pool due to the birth of people born only thanks to the intervention of doctors and the latest technologies. 

Nature Studies (Grade 5) / How the ancients imagined the universe

You probably have heard the word “Universe” more than once. What it is? This word usually means outer space and everything that fills it: cosmic, or celestial, bodies, gas, dust. In other words, this is the whole world. Our planet is a part of the immense Universe, one of countless celestial bodies.

For thousands of years, people admired the starry sky, watching the movement of the Sun, the Moon and the planets. And they always asked themselves an exciting question: how is the Universe arranged?

Modern ideas about the structure of the universe evolved gradually. In ancient times, they were not at all the same as now. For a long time, the center of the universe was considered the Earth.

The ancient Indians believed that the Earth was flat and rested on the backs of giant elephants, which, in turn, rest on a tortoise. A huge turtle stands on a snake, which personifies the sky and as it closes the terrestrial space.

The Universe was seen by other peoples living on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The land, in their opinion, is a mountain that is surrounded on all sides by the sea. Above them in the form of an overturned bowl is located the starry sky.

Ancient Greek scientists made a lot for the development of views on the structure of the Universe. One of them, the great mathematician Pythagoras (about 580-500 BC), is the first to assume that the Earth is not at all flat, but has the shape of a ball. The correctness of this assumption was proved by another great Greek, Aristotle (384-322 BC. E.

Aristotle proposed his model of the structure of the universe, or the system of the world. In the center of the Universe, according to the scientist, there is a stationary Earth, around which eight celestial spheres, solid and transparent (in translation from the Greek “sphere” – a sphere) rotate. Celestial bodies — planets, the moon, the sun, and stars — are fixed on them. The ninth sphere provides the movement of all other spheres, it is the engine of the Universe.

Aristotle’s views were firmly established in science, although even some of his contemporaries did not agree with him. The ancient Greek scientist Aristarkh Sammosky (320-250 BC) believed that the center of the universe was not the Earth, but the Sun; Earth and other planets move around it. Unfortunately, these brilliant guesses were rejected and forgotten at that time.

The views of Aristotle and many other scientists were developed by the greatest ancient Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy (c. 90-160 AD). He developed his system of the world, in the center of which, like Aristotle, placed the Earth. According to Ptolemy, the Moon, the Sun, five (known at that time) planets, and also the “sphere of fixed stars” move around the motionless spherical Earth. This sphere limits the space of the Universe. Ptolemy detailed his views in detail in the grand work “The Great Mathematical Construction of Astronomy” in 13 books.

The Ptolemy system well explained the apparent motion of celestial bodies. She allowed to determine and predict their location at one time or another. This system dominated science for 13 centuries, and the book of Ptolemy was a table for many generations of astronomers.

Two great greeks

Aristotle is the greatest scholar of ancient Greece. He was originally from the city of Stagira. Throughout his life, he devoted the collection and understanding of information known to scientists of his time. He was interested in everything: the behavior and structure of animals, the laws of motion of bodies, the structure of the universe, poetry, politics. He was the teacher of the outstanding commander Alexander the Great, who, having achieved fame, did not forget his old teacher. From his military campaigns, he constantly sent him samples of plants and animals unknown to the Greeks. After himself, Aristotle left numerous works, for example, “Physics” in 8 books, “On parts of animals” in 10 books. The authority of Aristotle for many centuries was indisputable in science.

Claudius Ptolemy was born in Egypt, in the town of Ptolemais, and then studied and worked in Alexandria, a city founded by Alexander the Great. It was the largest city in the Mediterranean, the capital of the Egyptian kingdom. In his libraries were collected scientific writings from the countries of the East and Greece. Only in the famous museum of Alexandria more than 700 thousand manuscripts were kept. Here worked well-known scientists of the ancient world. Ptolemy was a well-educated man: he studied astronomy, geography, and mathematics. Summarizing the work of ancient Greek astronomers, he created his own system of the world.

Conclusion

The universe is outer space and everything that fills it: celestial bodies, gas, dust. Modern ideas about the structure of the universe evolved gradually. For a long time, Earth was considered its center. It was precisely this point of view that the ancient Greek scientists Aristotle and Ptolemy, who created their systems of the world, adhered to.